CLOSE Reading

Annotation Symbols
L      language - word choice, vocabulary
Syn syntax - word order, grammar
Str structure - parallels, repetitions, patterns, etc
C context - purpose, historical
ε ethos - character, reputation
π pathos - emotions, passion
λ logos - logic reason

Strategies for Close Reading and Annotation

1. Getting Ready to Read -- Defining a key term; journal response; debating/discussing an opinion or belief or hypothetical situation that relates to the material.

2. Surveying the Text -- where and when was article/novel published? What can you find out about the author? What does the title/subtitle suggest about the piece? Do you know who the intended audience is?

3. Making Predictions and Asking Questions

First Reading
1. Reading with the Grain -- read for understanding  through the lens of the author

2. Answer the questions/predictions raised in Pre-Reading-- write your comments in the margin or on post-it’s

3. Circle words that you don’t understand -- take the time to define unknown words.

Second Reading
1. Reading Against the Grain -- question the text wearing different lenses; play the
disbelieving or doubting game. Continue writing in margins.

2. Analyze Stylistic Choices -- how would you describe the style? Informal? Academic? Controversial? What rhetoric does the author use to make his/her claim or theme believable?

3. Look for and circle ‘loaded’ words -- connotations used to evoke a response from the reader.

Consider the Structure of a Text

1. Physical division of an article or essay -- draw lines separating the introduction, body and conclusion of the article.

2. Descriptive Outlining -- note rhetorical function an