A period is used:
1. At the end of a declarative sentence.
2. At the end of an imperative sentence.
3. After numerals and letters in outlines.
4. At the end of a business request stated in question form.
5. After an abbreviation or an initial.

A question mark is used:
1. At the end of an interrogative sentence.
2. Inside parentheses after a date or statement to show doubt.

An exclamation point is used:
1. At the end of an exclamatory sentence•
2. After a very strong interjection. .
3. At the end of an imperative sentence that exclaims.

A comma is used:
1. To separate items in a series.
2. To separate adjectives of equal value.
3. To separate a direct quotation from the rest of a sentence.
4. To separate the day of the month from the year.
5. To separate the names of a city and a state.
6. To separate' a name from a title (David Bird. President)
7. To set off adjectives in an appositive position.
8. To set off introductory words like no and now.
9. To set off words like however. moreover. too.
10. To set off a name used in direct address.
11. To set off a nonrestrictive adjective clause.
12. To set off most words used in apposition.
13. After the greeting in a friendly letter.
14. After the closing in any letter.
15. After a last name preceding a first name.
16. After a mild interjection within a sentence.
17. After an introductory adverbial clause.
18. After an introductory participial phrase.
19. Before the conjunction in a compound sentence.
20. Whenever necessary to make meaning clear.

An apostrophe is used:
1. To show possession.
2. In contractions.
3. To form plurals of letters. figures, signs. and words.

Quotation marks are used:
1. To enclose the exact words of a speaker.
2. Around titles of short plays. short stories. short poems. chapter titles. and songs.

A colon is used:
1. In writing time (6:45).
2. To introduce a list.
3. After the greeting in a business letter.
4. In written plays and in other forms of written dialogue, after the name of the character who is speaking.

A semicolon is used:
1. To join independent clauses in a compound sentence when a conjunction is not
2. To precede a conjunctive adverb (therefore. however. furthermore. etc.) used between the coordinate clauses of a compound sentence.
3. In place of a comma when a more distinct pause than a comma indicates is desired.

Underlining is used:
1. Below handwritten titles of movies. newspapers, books, magazines. ships. and trains.
2. To set off foreign words and phrases which are not yet part of the English language.

A hyphen is used:
1. In writing compound numbers.
2. To divide a word at the end of a line.
3. Between parts of a compound adjective preceding a noun.

A dash is used:
1. To indicate an abrupt break in thought or structure.
2. To indicate a parenthetical or explanatory phrase or clause.
3. Between numbers in a page reference.

Parentheses are used:
1. To enclose material that is supplementary, explanatory. or interpretive.
2. To enclose a question mark after a date or a statement to show doubt.
3. To enclose an author's insertion or comment.