Comma and Semicolon

1. items in a series.
        I have books, papers, pencils" pens, and paper 'clips;
        We have government of the people, by the people, and for the people.

2. two or more coordinate adjectives before a noun.
        Joanne is an energetic, mischievous girl.
        (The following are not coordinating adjectives:
        the blue wool suit; a new tennis court)
3. non-essential appositives.
        Kevin Clancey, the senior class president, gave a speech.

4. sentences connected with coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)
        We went to the store, and we bought candy.

5. all non-essential modifiers.
        non-essential = The girl, who is wearing red today, won the election.
        essential = The girl who is wearing red today is Joanne Swanson.

6. introductory adverbial clauses from the main sentence.
        When he arose to give his speech, he was greeted with applause.

7. dates, geographical names, titles after names, addresses.
        December 7, 1945, is a famous date in history.
        El Segundo, California, is a beach community.
        Marcus Welby, M.D., will be your physician. ,
        The President lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C.

8. dialogue from the speaker.
        "He's won't be able," retorted his mother "to come out and play until his homework is completed."

9. parenthetical elements.
        I was, however, too tired to make the trip.
        However, I was too tired to make the trip.
        My hopes, to tell the. truth, had fallen to a low ebb.

10. Use a comma to prevent a misreading of the text.
        To Frank, Kevin had been a sort of an idol.
        Above, the mountain rose like purple shadows.

1. to replace coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)
        We went to the store; we bought candy.

2. when a sentence is heavily punctuated with commas.
        We travelled through Gilroy, Ca.; El Paso, Tx.; Nome, Ak.; and New York, N.Y.